1. The main source of radiation to the operator is from:
- putting hands in the beam
- scatter radiation
- off axis radiation
- gamma rays
- directly from the tube
Correct Answer: B) scatter radiation
Reference: Reference Miller DL, Vañó E, Bartal G, et al. Occupational Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology: A Joint Guideline of the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology Society of Europe and the Society of Interventional Radiology. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010;33:230–239.
2. Maneuvers to decrease the patient dose include:
- Maximize source-to-skin distance and minimize image receptor-to-patient distance
- Minimize source-to-skin distance and image receptor-to-patient distance
- Minimize source-to-skin distance and maximize image receptor-to-patient distance
- Maximize source-to-skin distance and image receptor-to-patient distance
- None of the above
Correct Answer: A) Maximize source-to-skin distance and minimize image receptor-to-patient distance
Reference: Reference: Miller DL, Balter S, Schueler BA, et al. Clinical radiation management for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Radiology. 2010;257(2):321–332.
3. A mnemonic describing manoeuvres to reduce operator and patient dose is:
Correct Answer: D) TIDS: Time, Intensity, Distance
Reference: Jones K, Miller D. Radiation Safety in Interventional Radiology: In Handbook of Interventional Radiology Procedures 6th Ed. Wolters Klower, Philadelphia, PA
4. Which of the following statements about human interactions with radiation is true?
- Dose thresholds for safety are absolute
- Skin is the most radiosensitive organ
- Humans have widely variable responses to the same radiation dose
- Anti-oxidants do not modify response to radiation exposure
- A bit of radiation is good for you
Correct Answer: C) Humans have widely variable responses to the same radiation dose
Reference: Reference: Abdelhalim, Patel, A PhD; Moquet J et al. Higher Incidence of Chromosomal Aberrations in Operators Performing a Large Volume of Endovascular Procedures. Circulation. 2022;145:1808–1810.
5. The following diseases have been seen with higher incidence in physicians doing fluoroscopic procedures:
- Carotid atherosclerosis
- Brain tumors
- Musculoskeletal disorders
Correct Answer: A,B,C,D All of the above
Reference: Investigation of radiation dose around C-arm fluoroscopy and relevant cancer risk to operating room staff. Robatjazi M, Dareyni A, Baghani HR, Hosseinzade M, Akbarzadeh R, Mehrpoyan M.Radiat Environ Biophys. 2022 May;61(2):301-307.